Mobile computing can be referred as any computation carried out on a mobile device. In mobile computing, the services provided by servers or a group of distributed computer systems synchronize and connect via the protocols of mobile communication.
Mobile computing in broader sense describes the ability of using a technology in order to connect wirelessly and use centralized information and application software with the utilization of portable, communication devices and wireless computing.
It provides distributed (decentralized) computations on different devices, networks and systems which are synchronized, mobile and interconnected through the standards of mobile communication and its protocols. Mobile devices are not restricted to just one and only one application such as voice communication. It also offers enormous applications to be installed on a specific mobile.
It means the combination of the computing devices with the environmental objects. It defines the integration and incorporation of computers into all practical objects in our day today lives and bestowing them with the computing abilities. It is based on pervasive computing.
Pervasive denotes “something existing in each and every part of a place or a thing”. It takes into consideration the environment wherein the communication and information technology is used by everyone all the time. It considers the use of sensors, actuators and integrated processors connected with high speed networks and then combined with the new devices for display and view purpose.
So mobile computing is also known as pervasive computing when a group of computing networks, systems or devices have certain characteristics viz application aware adaptation, transparency and the ability of environment sensing.
An example of mobile computing can be a mobile phone having multiple applications which serve the purpose of computing. Other examples could be MMS (multimedia messaging service), SMS (short message service), email, calendar, web browsing, phone etc. Mobile computing has a compatibility with the popular PIM (Personal Information Management) software.
Other examples of mobile computing can be a Bluetooth capability of hands free talking via car kits, ear buds and a headset.
Applications of Mobile Computing IN Video and Music:-
Computing has swiftly grown as it used to confine to only one single location. With the help of mobile computing, one can work from any comfortable location as long as the security and connection issues are perfectly factored. In the same way, the availability of high speed internet connections has also promoted the growth of mobile computing.
With the emerging and ever growing technology, mobile computing will definitely continue to be a major service in terms of computing and information/communication Technology.
Mind reading computer is defined as equipment which deduces the mental state of a human being. To understand a human being’s thought is one of the most difficult tasks. No one comes to know about what other person would actually do in up coming seconds by carrying out his present notion of thought or what a person thinks about the other person or what is he desiring at the present moment and many more. The mind reading computer can be a better solution for this as it could give you the answer of all such questions.
Mind reading computer deduces the thoughts and notions of a person which are based upon the various technologies for example by scrutinizing the expressions of the face along with the head gestures and then identifies the volume of the blood including the oxygen level inside the blood which flows in the brain vicinity.
With the exponential development in technologies, we can assume that in future we may have enormous amount of technology that will lead to the making of a perfect mind reading computer. This ability of a computer to read minds can offer us a lot of applications especially in the field of crime, medical and an individual’s life too.
Predicted Work of a Mind Reading Computer:-
A team from University of Cambridge have been working on this model (mind reading) in the corresponding computer laboratory .They have developed the mind reading machines which implements the computational model for mind reading in order to deduce the mental states of a person from their head gestures and facial expressions. This machine employs by making use of digital video cameras that analyse an individual’s facial expression thereby deducing a person’s fundamental mental state like thinking, interested, agreeing, bored, sad, happy and angry.
Having some knowledge of how a particular mental state is and then having some knowledge of how it is expressed by the facial expression and corresponding head gestures and then eventually storing it in a database of the mind reading machine. Afterwards, the machine can give the particular mental state. This model represents them at different numbers i.e. storing the head and face movement’s in a database and then representing them in 3D space in order to form the clear and concise model of a particular mental state represented by head gestures and facial expressions. A software from Navension Company detects 22 basic feature points of a face and then tracks them in the real time. Colour, Shape and Movement are the basic parameters that are analysed to recognize certain gestures such as open mouth and closed eyes (half).Combination of these parameters occurring in real time indicates the particular mental state. For example if an eyebrow is raised inwards, it might indicate thinking.
Estimation of Head Pose:-
It uses expression invariant features to estimate yaw(500),roll(300) and pitch(500) such as to estimate the head yaw by using the ratio of the left point to the right point of an eye width and estimating head roll by making use of angle between two inner corners of the eye.
Facial Expressions are recognized by some feature points comprising shape, colour and motion descriptors. The tracking of lip shape that recognizes corner pull of the lip (smile) and the distance between each of the mouth corner and anchor point is calculated and analysed using the machine.
Applications and Advantages of Mind Reading Computer:-
This mind reading computer can be of a greater and wider importance if used wisely and judiciously. It can help in mind reading of a person (although with not 100% accuracy) which inturn could let other person to know how this particular person thinks in real sense. So making judicious use of this machine it could help out in solving many critical problems.
Computing is not only limited to laptops and desktops, but is also now done on mobile devices such as palm tops or even a cell phone. One thing which hasn’t changed from past 50 years is a typical “QWERTY” keyboard. Keyboard without keys can be referred to as a “Virtual Keyboard”. Virtual keyboard makes use of artificial intelligence and a sensor technology so that users can work on every possible surface. Virtual Keyboard contains a gadget which is of the size of a flashlight and eventually projects a light on the surface in order to acquire the image of a keyboard on that surface.
Virtual keyboard is a handy, small, easy to use and well designed application that turns out to be a perfect way out for different or existing systems for text input.
The main features of a virtual keyboard are copy/paste, platform independent, built in settings and language layout etc.
It contains same operation just like that of a normal text editor. It is easy to use and has user friendly interface.
Equipments used in virtual keyboard technique:
1. A sensor module
2. InfraRed (IR) light source
3. A Pattern Projector.
The Sensor module:
A sensor module operates just like an eye of Keyboard Perception expertise. It functions by tracing the fingers of the user in a 3D space and tracks the intended mouse movements or keystrokes.
Keystroke and mouse tracking information is then processed and then the output is given to the host device through USB or other kind of interfaces.
Infrared (IR) Light Source:-
The IR light source gives out the beam of the light which is infrared. This kind of light beam is planned in such a way so that it overlaps the area over which the printed image or keyboard pattern resides. This is made so as to shed light on the fingers of a user by the infra red light beam.
A pattern projector projects the figure of a keyboard or a mouse of a system. This image is projected on a flat surface. This image is in turn of a normal QWERTY keyboard with each control functions and the keys as that of a generic keyboard.
1. Using virtual keyboard, you can make use of it even in the plane or open surface (viz open air) or you can write with it on any underlying surface.
2. It is used in operation theaters as low noise is mandatory there.
3. The typing is simple as it is not required to be written with enormous force. This eases’ the strains on your hands and wrists.
4. Here no software driver is required as it is just a simple thing in a way as no reconfiguration is required.
5. It has a high battery life as it uses typical coin sized lithium battery which lasts for about 8 months long before actually needed to be replaced.
2. It is much costly ranging from $150 to $200.
3. The room where the projected keyboard is required should not be bright because the virtual keyboard should be properly visible.
2. Used in smart phones, emails, spreadsheet tasks, word processing and PDA’s.
3. Used in operation theatres.
4. Used as a Computer/PDA input.
5 used as a Gaming Control
6. Television Remote Control.
A Virtual Keyboard makes use of artificial intelligence and sensor technology to allow users to work on any platform as if it is a real keyboard. Virtual keyboards or Projection Keyboards claim to offer a compact keyboard with full blown QWERTY keyboard. Canesta is the most advanced kind of a class of the technology. Different virtual keyboards fit in with different and distinct typing styles. Thus Virtual keyboards makes typing easy, fast, reliable and nearly a pleasure to work with.
For almost five long decades, hacking has been a major component of computing. It is a vast subject which almost covers an ample extent of topics. The first and the foremost hacking incident took place at MIT in 1960 and from that time onwards the term “Hacker” came into existence.
Hacking is a way of discovering the achievable entry points that are present in a computer network or a computer system and then finally going through those entry points. Hacking is typically done in order to acquire the unauthorized access to the computer network or a computer system with an intention of either harming a system or steal the critical information that is available on the computer.
Hacking on the other hand is legal too. It is legal provided of it is done with an intent to find weaknesses in computer network system or simply in a computer itself. This kind of hacking is known as Ethical Hacking.
A computer specialist who performs hacking is known as a “Hacker”. Hackers in real sense are those specialists who try to seek out knowledge in order to understand how a system is designed, how it operates and then they make an attempt of specializing these systems.
Ethical hacking includes an authorized effort in order to gain the unauthorized access to an application, data or a compute. Implementing ethical hacking involves replicating the actions and strategies of the malicious attackers. This practice inturn helps to recognize security vulnerabilities that can be afterwards resolved prior to the malicious attacker who has the chance to misuse them.
Key Features of Ethical hacking:-
1. Ethical hacker stays legal:-He acquires a proper authorization before performing and accessing a security evaluation.
2. Ethical Hacking determines and defines the capacity of assessment such that an ethical hacker’s job is legal and remains within an organizations granted boundary.
3. It notices all the vulnerabilities of a system and then finds all the possible way outs in order to tackle with all those vulnerabilities.
Certifications and skills required by an ethical hacker:-
An ethical hacker should possess extensive amount of computer skills.
An ethical hacker must have:
Today Ethical hacking is a backbone of network security. With every passing day its importance is increasing. It helps in closing all those open holes in a computer network thereby not allowing a typical hacker to hack into a computer system’s critical information. It is therefore an evolving technique if used wisely and judiciously in curbing out all the hackers and loop holes from any computer network.
Cyber terrorism is the intended use of certain disruptive activity or usage of threats in cyber space with the aim to foster ideological, social, political or religious or related objectives or to threaten any person in persistence of such a kind of objective.
Computers and internet are now an essential and most vital part of our daily life. They are used by people across the globe with the intent to make their life easier. They use them for processing data, storing information, sending message, receiving message, controlling machines, communication, editing, typing, drawing, designing and almost in all phase of life.
The word “cyber terrorism” denotes two elements: cyberspace and terrorism. Cyberspace means a “virtual world” that is, a place wherein computer program functions and the data moves.
Cyber terrorism is the intentional attack against any political information, computer programs, computer systems itself and the data which leads to violence against non-combatant targets by clandestine agents or any sub national group.
The key definition of Cyber Terrorism is simply to disfigure a server or a website or attacking some vital systems which turns out to be of no importance and inturn doesn’t sever any usage. There is also a chain of thought that states that cyber terrorism does not exist in real world and it is only a concern of hacking information. Some disagree with this thought as they purely believe that it is a kind of proper terrorism because of the improbability in the formation of fear of death in people using electronic modes by taking the protective technologies and current attack into consideration.
Who are cyber terrorists:-
According to America’s point of view the most dangerous group of terrorists is “Al-Qaeda” as they are considered as the first enemy of the US. According to the United State’s an official’s data was confiscated in Afghanistan which indicates that the group has inspected systems that inturn control American water distribution , communication systems, energy facilities, and other crucial infrastructure.
After 2001 (April) collision of Chinese fighter jet and US navy spy plane, Chinese hackers introduced Denial Operating System Service (DoS) attack against the American websites.
A study that was conducted for the second half year of 2002 showed up that most of the severe and dangerous nation for initiating the malicious harmful cyber attacks in US with 35.4% of the cases. South Korea was next in the list with 12.8% eventually followed by China6.2%, Germany (6.7%), and then finally France (4%).
Advantages of Cyber Terrorism for a Cyber Terrorist:-
Various Forms of Cyber Terrorism:-
Attacks through Internet:-
Unauthorized Access and usage:-
One of the most criminal activities involves the unauthorized access that means any kind of access without any permission of either the person having liable control of the computer or the right owner of a particular software or program. Every activity involved in committing a break down of a computer or a network is hacking. Hackers make certain harmful computer programs which in turn attack a target computer. They have an aim of destructing a computer or computer related work of a targeted client and in turn they get benefit out of it.
Trojan is a harmful program that acts like something really useful but it does the things that are quite devastating. These types of Programs are known as Trojans
Worm and Virus Attack:-
A virus is a program that has a capability to infect other programs thereby making copies of itself and then eventually spreading into other programs.
Programs that replicate like viruses and spread from one computer to other computer are called worms.
2. Email Spamming:-
Email spam refers to sending multiple emails to millions of users.It is a way too similar to chain letter.
Sending malicious and harmful code through an email:-
Some emails contain attachment or links which when visited can corrupt our system as these things are purely harmful and malicious software codes such as Trojans, Viruses etc.
3. Another aspect is known as phishing where in fake email messages are sent in order to get the personal information from the intended internet users.
4. Some miscreates also disrupt an identity of a targeted individual.
5. It also aims at spreading hate and provocation of terrorism.
Thus it is mandatory to conclude that the terrorists use the Internet and also communication technologies in order to achieve their goals, broadcast their propaganda thereby recruiting new supporters and followers. As Internet does not disclose the identity of a person using it, it is a great advantage for such terrorists as they can spread the terror over internet anonymously. So certain laws should be put forth that can stop cyber terrorism as a whole and it should not be continued any further.
An E-cash (electronic cash) payment system is based on e-payment protocol which authenticates a sequence of transaction payments using coins or electronic tokens by a third party. There are three kinds of users:-
Basic Prerequisites for E–Cash (Electronic) Payment Systems:-
Advantages of E-Cash Payment Systems:-
Transactions Types in E –Cash (Electronic) Payment Systems:-
There are three types of transactions:-
E Cash Protocol:-
E-cash was developed to permit the anonymous electronic cash (secure) to be used inturn over the internet in order to keep up to the online trading exchange between a buyer and a seller.
Other protocols of E-cash payment include Net cash and Mondex:-
The growth of E-cash is foreseeable, but further more improvements are required. Tackling anonymity, security, reliability will make E-cash more perfect for usage. In some developing countries where people hesitated in sticking to such methods, has now shown the tremendous usage of online payment and E-cash payment schemes. Its growth is clearly seen slowly and when it will be fully improved technologically, it will be more efficient and reliable for the customers to use it.
The term “Biometrics” refers to the analysis and measurement of human being’s characteristics that are distinct and unique in a particular individual.
Biometrics in literal terms means life measurement and is usually associated with operation of typical physiological characteristics in order to identify a particular individual. It’s most important and significant application is security, but despite that it is also used as a computer interface. A wide range of Biometric applications are used for authenticating an individual’s identity such as various individual features including face, fingerprints, iris recognition and signature.
Identification methods used in biometrics are preferred over the conventional passwords and PIN based methods. Due to various benefits, biometric technology is gaining more and more popularity with time. The requirement of physical presence of an individual at the time of identification by a biometric system makes it more reliable and authentic. Because of the wide usage of this “Biometric Technology”, it overcomes the need and requirement of remembering PINS and passwords. This automated setup thus makes the identification and verification process easier by identifying physiological and behavioural characteristics of a human being.
Types of Biometric Devices:-
Applications of Biometrics:-
Most of the biometric applications fall under one of nine all-purpose categories:-
Biometrics provides very mature and robust choice for a biometric based technology. As such, there is an enormous way out in the market. The alternative within a marketplace allows a company to pick that solution which is right. With this kind of maturity also comes the familiarity. This familiarity inturn has allowed attackers to research for different kinds of attacks on a biometric setup. So, in this connection a company needs to measure its risk factor and then ultimately find the right exchange between user security and convenience. This security part needs to analyse the amount of effort which is inturn required to compromise the viable lost of data, time and to compromise a system.
Mobile Security is one of the major concerns as data transfer through a mobile application can directly have an effect on businesses. This is because people today use their smart phones for both business purpose as well as for their personal use also referred to as “Bring Your Own Device (BYOD)”.In order to tackle with this problem, people must have sufficient knowledge of transfer sessions in order to educate employees or people about the possible threats by implementing appropriate mobile phone security system. The most challenging job is to keep security systems updated to the pace of the arrival of new mobile applications or products and that too at the expense of transformation.
Some of the recognized mobile insecurities which are based on Acronis International’s White Paper Technology which aims at transferring insecure files, lost or stolen mobile phones, public hotspots and open Wi-fi network, viruses and malware and imprecise corporate policies. Among all the feasible vulnerabilities of mobile security, malware has acquired exceptional attention and moreover researchers are looking for new methods and tactics to take their edge off from spreading, especially Android Malware.
The smart phones of the world market is occupied or invaded by iOS and Android over other mobile Operating Systems (OS’s) like Blackberry and Windows. Since Android is in the possession of huge market share and in this connection malware programmers are more interested in affecting Android Phones.
According to recent analysis, it is acknowledged that Android malware more likely exist and grow faster, yet iOS has further more vulnerabilities. This can be due to the absolute high number of Malware families which inturn accounts more in Android than in iOS.
Goal of Malware Attacks and that too on Android:-
Malware Programmers gain the advantage from infected mobile devices as they are capable of monetizing a device, gathering personal information by detecting users and thereby stealing the ad revenue of software application developers through their embedded harmful code. Some features that make a malware programmer influenced on attacking and targeting a mobile device is the availability of Bluetooth, Cameras, GPS and wireless and other such location services in most of the smart phones and also using mobiles for payments.
In addition of having huge market share, Android has open design which allows the users to install applications from various unauthorized sources which are basically the sites of various Malware Programmers in order to attack Android Phones. Moreover Android’s Store (Play Store) is vulnerable to such malware attacks.
(Measures to Protect your Device: -)
1. When your device is stolen or lost, the basic way out is to have user validation and authentication which can be achieved by means of a strong password, locking your device or by a pass code.
2. For protecting your device from viruses and malwares, download your application from trusted sources like Google Play Store. Otherwise downloading your application from unauthorized services can infect your mobile phone.
3. Also check for apprehensive behaviour of your Device’s Settings that is, malicious applications can manually turn on the GPS, Wi-FI or Bluetooth of your Phone.
4. If the overall performance of your device is driven down or your phone reboots more frequently, then most likely your device is infected by a virus or it is a general hardware problem.
5. Make Sure to turn off your Wi-FI or Bluetooth when your mobile device is not in use.
The invention of computers has really made an impact in various aspects and fields of work. The capability of a computer to carry out various tasks has grown incredibly. Computer Systems have made their impact on diverse working platforms thereby increasing the speed and inturn the capability of doing work with less amount of time.
One of the branches of Computer Science named “Artificial Intelligence” aims at creating computers as intelligent and quick as human beings.
John McCarthyy is known as the father of AI and according to him Artificial Intelligence (AI) is basically the science and engineering of making machines intelligent especially intelligent and effective computer programs.
Artificial Intelligence(AI) is an approach of yielding a computer ,the remote controlled robot ( a remote here can be a computer itself),or it is an approach of making a software that thinks intelligently, just like the way a human being thinks(smartly).
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is achieved by learning and studying how a human brain actually thinks and certain other human features like how human beings learn work and decide while solving a problem. Based on this study, engineers use these methods and start developing intelligent systems and softwares.
Goals of Artificial Intelligence:-
Contribution of Artificial Intelligence:-
Artificial Intelligence has contributed in the field of Computer science, Psychology, Biology, Mathematics, Engineering and Mathematics. A major push of AI is in the advancement of computer functions that are associated with human intelligence such as learning, problem solving and reasoning.
Programming with Artificial Intelligence:-
Applications of Artificial Intelligence:-
· Gaming: - Artificial Intelligence play a vital role in strategy making games such as poker, chess, etc where a machine can actually think of enormous amount of possible situations based on well defined knowledge.
· Vision Systems:- This system understands and interprets visible input on the computer, viz,:
Ø Doctors using certain clinical advanced expert system in order to carry out diagnosis of a patient.
Ø Police using computer softwares that can easily recognize the appearance of the criminal with an already stored portrait which inturn is made by a forensic artist.
Ø A spying aeroplane taking photographs which are used in figuring out map of the areas or spatial information.
· Handwriting Recognition: - The software namely handwriting recognition interprets the written text on the paper by a simple pen or by a stylus on screen. It can even recognize the shape of letters and covert it into editable format.
The 4G or Fourth Generation of mobile networks has revolutionized the current mobile networks to end Internet Protocol (IP) based networks. Now due to the advent of 4G every device in the world has a unique IP address which inturn allows IP based means of communication for a mobile device, internet itself then ultimately back out all over again. 4G is all set to provide 100 Mbps to the roaming mobile phone globally and for stationary devices, it provides up to 1gbps of data. 3G networks on the other hand are not fast enough and offer up to 384 kbps and it doesn’t meet the requirements of most of the users. The evolution from 3G to 4G has a huge impact on network devices as 4g devices offer better quality of sound and video.4G incorporates all systems including public networks and private operating broadband networks to hoc networks and personal area networks. Some of the standards of the 4G Network are WiMAX, UMTS, 802.20, HSDPA and other owned networks from Navini Networks and Flarion technologies.
4G Technology (Fourth Generation Technology):-
It is a Fourth Generation (4G) mobile data protocol. Enormous amount of people are sticking to 4G network as 4G network gives you the best possible amount of speed. Here in 4G networks comes the concept of LTE which stands for Long Term Evolution.4G enabled smart phones operating on 4G LTE networks indicates that you can download files over the Internet up to 10 times more faster than 3G service. With 4G network you can enjoy surfing the net from you home personal computers when connecting you PC to a Wi-FI hotspot of your phone.
Different Technologies used in wireless 4G technology are:-